History and Geography
The Ottoman beylik's first capital was located in Bursa in 1326. Edirne which was conquered in 1361 was the next capital city. After largely expanding to Europe and Anatolia, in 1453, the Ottomans nearly completed the conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople during the reign of Mehmed II. Constantinople was made the capital city of the Empire following Edirne. The Ottoman Empire would continue to expand into the Eastern Anatolia, Central Europe, the Caucasus, North and East Africa, the islands in the Mediterranean, Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, and the Arabian peninsula in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.
Posts about Turkey
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The sultan of the golden age, Suleiman the Magnificent.
The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In addition, the Ottomans were often at war with Persia over territorial disputes. At sea, the empire contended with the Holy Leagues, composed of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Venice and the Knights of St. John, for control of the Mediterranean. In the Indian Ocean, the Ottoman navy frequently confronted Portuguese fleets in order to defend its traditional monopoly over the maritime trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe; these routes faced new competition with the Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.
The Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699 marked the beginning of the Ottoman decline; some territories were lost by the treaty: Austria received all of Hungary and Transylvania except the Banat; Venice obtained most of Dalmatia along with the Morea (the Peloponnesus peninsula in southern Greece); Poland recovered Podolia. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire continued losing its territories, including Greece, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the Balkans in the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars. Anatolia remained multi-ethnic until the early 20th century (see Rise of Nationalism under the Ottoman Empire). Its inhabitants were of varied ethnicities, including Turks, Armenians, Kurds, Greeks, Frenchs, and Italians (particularly from Genoa and Venice). Faced with territorial losses on all sides the Ottoman Empire forged an alliance with Germany who supported it with troops and equipment. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I (1914–1918) on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. During the war, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians and Pontic Greeks. Following WWI, the huge conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states.
On October 30, 1918, the Armistice of Mudros was signed, followed by the imposition of Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920 by Allied Powers, which was never ratified. The Treaty of Sèvres would break up the Ottoman Empire and force large concessions on territories of the Empire in favour of Greece, Italy, Britain and France.
Recent History Republic of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)
The occupation of some parts of the country by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres. By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were expelled. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of July 24, 1923, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara. Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past. The Ottoman fez was abolished, full rights for women politically were established, and new writing system for Turkish based upon the Latin alphabet was created. According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.
SPECIAL DAYS, FESTIVALS and HOLIDAYS in TURKEY
Feast of the Sacrifice (October 15 – 18, 2013)
In Turkey, every year two religious festivals are celebrated: “Ramadan” and the “Feast of the Sacrifice”. Both of them are celebrated ten days earlier than the year before every year, since celebration days are calculated according to the lunar calendar. According to the lunar calendar the Feast of the Sacrifice is celebrated on the tenth day of the month “Zilhicce”. Celebration lasts four days.
This festival is well known with its story. In the past, the prophet Ibrahim did not have a a child for many years. Then he promised God ‘if God gave him a son, he would sacrifice him for God’. After he had got a son, he told Ismail that he had to sacrifice him for God. When he intended to sacrifice Ismail for God, a ram fell from the sky. God told Ibrahim to sacrifice a ram instead of Ismail. After that day it became a fashion.
On the first day of the Feast of the Sacrifice, Muslim sacrifice rams. In some parts of Turkey rams are washed, painted with henna. Rams, sheep or veal may be sacrificed. The sacrificed animal must be healthy. If it is female, it must not be pregnant. Before sacrificing, rams’ eyes should be covered with a white towel or handkerchief. Two-third of the meat from sacrificed animals is given to relatives, neighbour and the poor. One –third of the meat should be left in the house. Thus, you can see many animal bazaars during these 4 days.
Muslims around the world celebrate this feast of commitment, obedience and self-sacrifice to God. People wear their nicest clothing. Next, people visit their neighbours, relatives and friends and partake in festive meals with special dishes, beverages, and desserts. Children receive gifts and sweets on this happy occasion. People exchange greeting cards at this time
The main idea of the Feast of the Sacrifice is helping the poor and having a good relationship with everyone. Muslims pray for forgiveness from God and strength of faith. They, in turn, forgive others, releasing any feelings of enmity or ill feeling towards others.
Republic Day (October 29, 2013)
Republic Day marks the creation of the Turkish Republic in 1923. After Turkey’s victory in the War of Independence (1919-1923), the Turkish parliament proclaimed the new Turkish state as a republic. A new constitution, which the parliament adopted on October 29, 1923, replaced the constitution of the Ottoman Empire. The leader in the Turkish War of Independence, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, became the country’s first president on the same day. Many people in Turkey celebrate Republic Day on October 29 by attending performances and participating in traditional processions with flags and musical bands. The Turkish Republic’s founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk proclaimed Republic Day as Turkey’s most important holiday. Many people go to local stadiums on October 29 to watch performances dedicated to Republic Day in Turkey. Such performances usually consist of theater sketches, poetry readings and traditional Turkish dances. Many school children participate in school performances for parents and teachers. Republic Day is an official national holiday in Turkey. Public administration buildings, schools, post offices and many small businesses are usually closed on this day.
Atatürk Memorial Day (November 10, 2013)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of Turkish Republic died on November 10, 1938. Since then, every year November 10, Turkish people pay tribute to Atatürk. At 9.05 a.m, the moment of his death for about a minute the Turkish people stand silent in commemoration of him. Many people visit Anıtkabir “memorial tomb”in Ankara during this day.
National Sovereignty and Children’s Day (April 23, 2013)
Many people in Turkey commemorate the first gathering of the Grand National Assembly (the Turkish Parliament), which took place on April 23, 1920, by attending local ceremonies or laying wreaths at monuments of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Turkish Republic. The biggest ceremony takes place at the Ataturk Mausoleum in Ankara. Because Ataturk reportedly dedicated the Turkish Republic to children, Turkish schoolchildren take seats in the Parliament for the day and symbolically govern the country. They elect a president who
then addresses the country on national television. Children’s festivals take place throughout the country. National Sovereignty and Children’s Day is an official holiday in Turkey. Government offices, schools and most businesses are closed on this day
Hıdırellez (May 5 – 6, 2013)
The Hıdırellez, which falls on May 5-6, is a celebration of “the day of Hızır” -- which is the day that the prophets Hızır and İlyas met in Islamic belief. It is believed that all wishes that are made on that night will be granted within the span of a year.
Hıdırellez festivities are common throughout Turkey. Each province has their own unique way of celebrating the day and making wishes on the night of May 5, following customs passed down by their ancestors.
Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day (May 19, 2013)
The founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, arrived in Samsun on May 19, 1919, to start a popular uprising against the decision of the World War I allies. The date of Atatürk’s arrival in Samsun is accepted as the starting date of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey. Following Atatürk’s wish, the Turkish government declared May 19 to be Youth and Sports Day and made it an official holiday in 1938. In the run-up to the May 19 celebrations, young Turkish athletes carry the national flag from Samsun, a Black Sea port from where Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started Turkey’s War of Independence in 1919, to Ankara, the country’s capital. The marathon usually takes about 10 days. The Turkish president accepts the flag at a ceremony on May 19. Various sports events take place on May 19 throughout Turkey. Many people celebrate this day by watching athletes perform at their local stadiums or by participating in sports events that are open to the public, such as half-marathons. University students usually prepare special programs for their teachers and parents on this day. People lay wreaths to Atatürk’s monuments and hang Turkish flags outside their windows. The Commemoration of Atatürk, Youth and Sports Day is an official holiday in Turkey. All administration buildings, post offices, schools, and most businesses are closed on this day.
The Tünel (English: Tunnel ) is a short underground railway line in Istanbul, Turkey. It is an underground funicular with two stations, connecting the quarters of Karaköy and Beyoğlu. Located at the northern shore of the Golden Horn, the underground railway tunnel goes uphill from close to sea level and is about 573 metres long. Inaugurated on January 17, 1875, the Tünel is the third-oldest subterranean urban rail line in the world, after the London Underground (1863) and the Athens Metro Line 1 (1869). The Tünel is said to be one of the first subterranean urban rail lines in continental Europe.
Marmaray is a partially operational rail transportation project in the Turkish city of Istanbul. It comprises an undersea rail tunnel under the Bosphorus strait, and the modernization of existing suburban railway lines along the Sea of Marmara from Halkalı on the European side to Gebze on the Asian side. The procurement of new rolling stock for suburban passenger traffic is also part of the project. Construction started in 2004, with an initial target opening date of April 2009. After multiple delays caused by the discovery of historical and archaeological finds, the first phase of the project opened on 29 October 2013. It is the first standard gauge rail connection between Europe and Asia. The second phase of the project was scheduled to open in 2015, but the work has been stopped and it is unknown when it will be finished.
The name Marmaray comes from combining the name of the Sea of Marmara, which lies just south of the project site, with ray, the Turkish word for rail. The Turkish press has compared it to the Silk Road.
1. Üzüm üzüme baka baka kararır.
(The grape gets darker as it looks at the other grape )
2. Emek olmayınca yemek olmaz.
(If there is no effort (or pain) there is no food)
3. Irmaktan geçerken at değişirtirilmez.
(Don't change the horse while you are crossing the river )
4. Insan yedisinde ne ise yetmişinde de odur
(One will be the same when he is 70 as he was 7 )
5. Keskin sirke küpüne zarardır
(strong vinegar harms its cup)
1. A person who falls in with bad companions gradually acquires their bad habits.
2. No pain, No gain.
3. Don"t make the vital changes while you are in the middle of doing something.
4. A person´s character does not change with time.
5. Bad tempered(quick tempered) people will harm themselves.
Bu ne kadar?
How are you?
Good, and you?
Are you hungry?
Are you thirsty
How much is it?
In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine (Black Sea). Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia, to the east by the upper Euphrates and the Armenian Highland, to the north by Pontus, and to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia.
The name, traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history, continues in use as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders, in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage.
Ephesus which was established as a port, was used to be the most important commercial centre. It played a great role in the ancient times with its strategic location. Ephesus is located on a very fertile valley.
Ephesus, once, the trade centre of the ancient world, a religious centre of the early Christianity and today, Ephesus is an important tourism centre in Turkey.
The ancient city Ephesus is located in Selcuk, a small town 30km away from Kusadasi.
Ephesus in the UNESCO World Heritage List
Sumela Monastery Turkey
Sumela is 1600 year old ancient Orthodox monastery located at a 1200 meters height on the steep cliff at Macka region of Trabzon city in Turkey.
The monastery is constructed on rocks reached by a path through the forest. The beautiful frescoes dating from the 18 th century on the walls of the monastery are biblical scenes of Christ and Virgin Mary.
The site was abandoned in 1923 and became a museum and a popular tourist attraction because of its breath-taking location, structure and scenery.
On 15 August 2010, with the permission of Turkish Government, an Orthodox Mass was held for the first time at Sumela monastery since 1923.
The mausoleum of Antiochus I (69–34 B.C.), who reigned over Commagene, a kingdom founded north of Syria and the Euphrates after the breakup of Alexander's empire, is one of the most ambitious constructions of the Hellenistic period. The syncretism of its pantheon, and the lineage of its kings, which can be traced back through two sets of legends, Greek and Persian, is evidence of the dual origin of this kingdom's culture.
The Turkey National Football Team
Represents Turkey in association football and is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Turkey. They are affiliated with UEFA.
Turkey has qualified three times for the World Cup finals, in 1950, 1954, and 2002, although they withdrew from the 1950 event. Turkey has also qualified four times for the UEFA European Championship, in 1996, 2000, 2008, and 2016. They have reached the semi-finals of three major tournaments: the 2002 World Cup, the 2003 Confederations Cup, and Euro 2008.
Istanbul City Guide Video
Sources And Links