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(All of what has provided in this country page about Iran is just a drop from sea.)

Iran By Rojhano

Experience the Iranian hospitality! Iranians are kind hearted people and this is demonstratedin their hospitality/gestures when you visit their place. Tea in black glasses and a bowl full of seasonal fruits – served always to the guests regardless of how long they are there for.

Posts about Iran


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The country's name was changed from Persia to Iran in 1935.
Capital: Tehran
Supreme leader: Sayed Ali Khamenei
Population: 80,043,146
Currency: Iranian rial
Official language: Persian
President: Sayed Hasan Rohani
Iran has no territories or colonies.


Iran History

Cave Painting, in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC.

Cave Painting, in Doushe cave, Lorestan, Iran, 8th millennium BC.

The earliest archaeological artifacts in Iran, like those excavated at the Kashafrud and Ganj Par sites, attest to a human presence in Iran since the Lower Paleolithic era, c. 800,000–200,000 BC. Iran's Neanderthal artifacts from the Middle Paleolithic period, c. 200,000–40,000 BC, have been found mainly in the Zagros region, at sites such as Warwasi and Yafteh Cave. Around 10th to 8th millennium BC, early agricultural communities such as Chogha Golan and Chogha Bonut began to flourish in Iran, as well as Susa and Chogha Mish developing in and around the Zagros region.


 
A list of all Iran's kings from about 2700 BC is available. The most famous one of them is  Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, which was the biggest empire that the world had ever seen (600 or 576- 530 BC) and, he was the first to establish the charter of human rights. In this period Iran stretched from the Aegean coast of Asia Minor to Afghanistan, as well as south to Egypt.


Cyrus Charter of Human Rights Cylinder


First Charter of Human Rights


I am Kourosh (Cyrus), King of the world, great king, mighty king, king of Babylon, king of the land of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four quarters, son of Camboujiyah (Cambyases), great king, king of Anshân, grandson of Kourosh (Cyrus), I gathered together all their inhabitations and restored (to them) their dwellings. The gods of Sumer and Akkad whom Nabounids had, to the anger of the lord of the gods, brought into Babylon. I, at the bidding of Marduk, the great lord, made to dwell in peace in their habitations, delightful abodes.
May all the gods whom I have placed within their sanctuaries address a daily prayer in my favour before Bel and Nabu, that my days may be long, and may they say to Marduk my lord, “May Kourosh (Cyrus) the King, who reveres thee, and Kaboujiyah (Cambyases) his son …” Now that I put the crown of kingdom of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions on the head with the help of (Ahura) Mazda, I announce that I will respect the traditions, customs and religions of the nations of my empire and never let any of my governors and subordinates look down on or insult them until I am alive. From now on, till (Ahura) Mazda grants me the kingdom favor, I will impose my monarchy on no nation. Each is free to accept it , and if any one of them rejects it , I never resolve on war to reign. Until I am the king of Iran, Babylon, and the nations of the four directions, I never let anyone oppress any others, and if it occurs , I will take his or her right back and penalize the oppressor.


And until I am the monarch, I will never let anyone take possession of movable and landed properties of the others by force or without compensation. Until I am alive, I prevent unpaid, forced labor. Today, I announce that everyone is free to choose a religion. People are free to live in all regions and take up a job provided that they never violate other’s rights.
No one could be penalized for his or her relatives’ faults. I prevent slavery and my governors and subordinates are obliged to prohibit exchanging men and women as slaves within their own ruling domains. Such a traditions should be exterminated the world over. I implore to (Ahura) Mazda to make me succeed in fulfilling my obligations to the nations of Iran (Persia), Babylon, and the ones of the four directions.  

Tomb of Cyrus the Great under the starry sky of Pasargadae, Iran, a UNESCO heritage site. October 29 is the international day of Cyrus the Great.

Tomb of Cyrus the Great under the starry sky of Pasargadae, Iran, a UNESCO heritage site. October 29 is the international day of Cyrus the Great.


Ethnicities in Iran

There are different ethnic groups in Iran with different dialects, clothing and each one of them has it's own customs, from  which all were derived from ancient Iran. The largest group in this category includes Persians ( who form an absolute majority of Iran's population, about 61%), Azerbaijanis are next with about 16%, then Kurds 10%, Lurs 6%, Turkmens(and other Turks) 2%, Arabs 2%, Balooch 2%, and others( mainly Talysh, Armenians, Georgians) 


Famous Iranians

The long history of Iran has witnessed many conquerors, wise rulers and statesmen, artists, poets, historians, and philosophers. In religion, there have been diverse figures. Zoroaster (Zarathushtra), who probably lived in the 6th century BC, founded the religion known as Zoroastrianism or Mazdaism, with Ahura-Mazda as the god of good. In the 3rd century AD, Mani attempted a fusion of the tenets of Mazdaism, Judaism, and Christianity. The Bab (Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad of Shirāz, 1819–50) was the precursor of Baha'ism, founded by Baha' Allah (Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, 1817–92).

 

Persian rulers of the pre-Christian era include Cyrus ("the Great"; Kurush, r.550–530 BC), Cambyses II (Kambuiya, r.529–522 BC), Darius I ("the Great"; Darayavaush, r.521–486 BC), Xerxes I ("the Great"; Khshayarsha, r.486–465 BC), and Artaxerxes I (Artakhshathra, r.464–424 BC). Shah 'Abbas (r.1587–1628) expanded Persian territory and conquered Baghdād. Prominent political figures of modern times are Reza Shah Pahlavi (1877–1944), who reigned from 1925 to his abdication in 1941; and his son, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi (1919–80), who was Shah from 1941 until his abdication in 1979. Until his death in 1989, Iran was under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1900–89). Ayatollah Ali Khamenei (b.1939) took over the position of Supreme Leader upon Khomeini's death.

 

The great epic poet Firdawsi (Abdul Qasim Hassan ibn-i-Ishaq ibn-i Sharafshah, 940–1020), writing about AD 1000, produced the Shahnama (Book of Kings) dealing with four ancient dynasties and full of romantic and heroic tales that retain their popularity today. Omar Khayyam (d.1123?), astronomer and poet, is known in the Western world for his Rubáiyât, a collection of quatrains freely translated by Edward Fitzgerald. Important figures of the Seljuk period (11th and 12th centuries) include Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Ghazali (1058–1111), philosopher and mystic theologian, who exerted an enormous influence upon all later speculative thought in Islam; Farid ad-Din 'Attar (Muhammad bin Ibrahim, 1119–1229?), one of the greatest of mystic poets; and Nizami (Nizam ad-Din Abu Muhammad, 1141–1202), noted for four romantic epic poems that were copied and recopied by hand and illuminated with splendid miniatures. In the 13th century, Jalal ad-Din Rumi (1207–73) compiled his celebrated long mystic poem, the Mathnavi, in rhyming couplets; and Sa'di (Muslih ud-Din, 1184?–1291), possibly the most renowned Iranian poet within or outside of Iran, composed his Gulistan (Rose Garden) and Bustan (Orchard). About a hundred years later, in 1389, another poet of Shirāz died, Hafiz (Shams ud-Din Muhammad); his collected works comprise nearly 700 poems, all of them ghazals or lyrical odes.

 

Poets of the modern period include Iraj Mirza (1880–1926), Mirzadeh Eshqi (d.1924), Parveen Ettasami (d.1941), and the poet laureate Behar (Malik ash-Shuara Bahar, d.1951). Preeminent among prose writers was Sadeq Hedayat (1903–51), author of the novel Buf i kur (The Blind Owl) and numerous other works, including films. Azar Nafisi (b.1955) is an Iranian-born professor and writer residing in the United States whose book Reading Lolita in Tehran gained international acclaim and was translated into 32 languages.

 

Miniature painting came to full flower in the second half of the 15th century. The greatest figure in this field was Bihzad, whose limited surviving work is highly prized. The School of Herāt was composed of his followers.

 

Abbas Kiarostami (b.1940) is an influential and controversial post revolutionary filmmaker who is highly respected in the international film community.


Some interesting facts about Iran:  

Iranians are the FIRST NATION in the world that 

  1. Invented wastewater system that discharged waste to the outside of cities.
  2. Introduced horses to world.
  3. Discovered copper.
  4. Discovered fire. 
  5. Inititated melting metals in a city named as Silk in Kashan.
  6. Minted coin.
  7. Invented thread and spinning.
  8. Produced perfume for body.
  9. Invented alphabet.
  10. Found out that the earth is globular.
    And also many other things….

Ethnicities in Iran

There are diverse ethnic group in different parts of Iran, they are different from west to east and north to south. Each one of these groups has their own clothing , customs and language(dialect). But all of these things have been derived from ancient Iran. The largest group in this category includes Persians (who form an absolute majority of the Iranian population) with about 61% of Iran's population, then Azerbaijanis with 16%, Kurds 10%, Lors 6%, Turkmens( and other Turks in Iran) 2%, Arabs 2%, Balooch 2%, and others 1%. In pictures belowi will show you some of their customs and clothings.

Each one of these type of clothing belongs to a specific ethnic group.

Each one of these type of clothing belongs to a specific ethnic group.

Azeri dance

Azeri dance

Kurds wedding

Kurds wedding


Festivals

  • NowRuz: now means new and the word ruz means day, so nowruz means starting a new day and it is the Celebration of the start of spring ("Rejuvenation"). It starts on the first day of spring (also the first day of the Iranian Calendar year), 21 March, in that 12 days as a sign of the past 12 months, all Iranian families gather around and visit each other. It is also the best time to re-experience the feeling of mehr (pure love). In Nowruz all families talk about their best experiences of the last year and the things they are looking forward in the next year and they all become bonded again in peace. There are many other things Iranians do for Nowruz including khane tekani (cleaning the house) and Haji Firooz, where a person who make his face black and wears a red dress, walks around the streets and entertains people by singing a special song.
Haji Firooz

Haji Firooz

Haft Seen traditional table of Nowrooz    ( Sofreye Haft Seen)

Haft Seen traditional table of Nowrooz    ( Sofreye Haft Seen)

  • Sofreye Haft Seen: sofre (tablecloth), haft (seven), sin (the letter S [س]). Al-Bīrūnī said: haftsin came from jamshid because he destroyed the evil that made pars lands weak so in first day of Iranian calendar people called it nowruz (starting of a new day) and they put 7 different beans on their table as a sign of thanking nature for giving humans all they need. Since then every year Iranians put haftseen on their tables, but nowadays they put 7 things that start with letter [س]. Some people also believe that sasanian had a very beautiful plate that was given to them from China and they called it chini plate, and after some years the word chini changed into sini (a beautiful plate) so people would put 7 things in a sini.
  • Sizdah Bedar: Persian Festival of "Joy and Solidarity". The 13th and last day of Nowruz celebration. Because of the end of twelve days (a sample of twelve month) they celebrate the 13th day as a new beginning of the next twelve month and it has no relations with the number 13 (as an unlucky number). It is celebrated outdoors along with the beauty of nature. Al-Bīrūnī also called this day: tir ruz: blissed day. 02 April.
  • Shabe Chelle: The turning point. End of the longest night (darkness) of the year, and beginning of growing of the days (Lights). A celebration of Good over Evil. Also known as Shab-e Yaldā we have special nuts, fruits and foods for that night.
  • Ramadan (Ramazan in Iran): Iranian have special recipes as Zoolbia-Bamieh, Shole Zard, Ferni, Halva and Ash Reshteh in Ramezan.
  • Eid ul-Fitr or Eid e Fetr: "The Festival of Fast-Breaking" which comes at the end of Ramadan. People give gifts and money to poor people, patients and the handicapped.
  • Ashurah and Tasoa: Shi'a Muslims observe the day in mourning for Hussein and in remembrance of his martyrdom. In Iran, Iranians perform Ta'zieh, the old Iranian dramatic parade (post Islamic era). There exists also a rather special recipe for some special drinks in this festival. Many people cook something and offer it to their neighbors as gifts.
  • Nimeh Şabân: celebration for the twelfth and final Shi'a Imam. The festival consists of some fireworks and decorating the cities with lights, bulbs and trees.
  • Ghadr nights: the "Night of Qadr" towards the end of Ramadan, which is when the first verses of the Qur'an were revealed to Muhammad. Iranian stay awake the nights and light candles.
  • Ghorban ceremony: "The Festival of Sacrifice". In Iran, Iranian sacrifice sheep and offer the meat to neighbors and also poor people for free. There is also a barbecue in almost every house.
  • Ghadir ceremony

Important National Holidays

Oil Nationalisation Day: 20 March
Prophet's Birthday and the Martyrdom of Imam Sadeq: 31 March
Islamic Republic Day: 01 April
Death of Imam Khomeini: 04 June


Transportation

How to get to Iran by Air

The most important airport in Iran is Mehrabad airport, 5km west of Tehran. Most flights from Asia, Middle East and Europe to Iran land here. Iran’s national airline runs three direct flights to and from London. Tourists travelling from Australia and USA have to travel via the Middle East or Asia.  
How to get to Iran by Rail

There are no rail connections to Iran at present. The Qom-Zahedan Line, which when completed will connect Europe to India and will include Iran in its stopovers.

 

How to get to Iran by Sea

Iran can be accessed by sea, but connections are irregular. Most of the traffic is concentrated in the Persian Gulf, with two major ports - Abbas and Bushehr, giving access from Sharjah, Dubai, UAE, Bahrain Kuwait and Qatar. Caspian Sea also has two ports - Nowshahr and Anzelli, but not many regular boats or ferries run to and from here except a few cargo boats that connect Iran with Azerbaijan.  

 


Tourism in Iran

An exciting history, a multi-cultural society, some of the world’s largest heritage sites and amazing works of architecture, yet Iran has never been featured on top of the traveler's itinerary in recent times. The international business traveler is familiar with cities like Tehran, Persepolis and Shiraz and Esfahan. Museums, mosques, mausoleums and sublime ruins are assured to satisfy your cultural cravings. Iran is also a treasure trove of carpets and earthenware.
 
Rail, road and air - all three modes of transport are active in Iran. However, travelling by air is considered the most practical. Air travel is fairly reasonably priced and connects most cities of tourist interests. The national airlines for Iran runs regular and frequent flights to and from Tehran, Tabriz, Esfahan, Shiraz, Mashhad, Ahwaz, Kish, Zahedan and other major cities. There are also private airlines running services between these cities. 

Travel in Iran by road is the next best mode of transport. The road network is extensive with both paved roads and motorways running for almost 52,000 km connecting all major cities across the country. The two important roads A1 and A2 connect to the borders of Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Turkey. Both buses and taxis are actively functional and extend comfortable travel time except during the Iranian New year and other festivals when it usually gets very chaotic. It is best to hire taxis around this time. 
 

Jadeh Chaloos, (Chaloos road) one of the five most beautiful roads in the world. North of Iran

Jadeh Chaloos, (Chaloos road) one of the five most beautiful roads in the world. North of Iran


Foods

Rice is the staple food in Iran and the Iranian cuisine is mainly rice dishes cooked with fresh vegetables, herbs and meat mainly lamb and mutton. The Iranian kebabs are scrumptious delights with a very unique flavour. Some of the most popular dishes not to be missed are chelo khoresh (rice topped with vegetables and meat in a nut sauce), polo chele (pilau rice), polo sabzi (pilau rice cooked with fresh herbs), polo chirin (sweet-sour saffron-coloured rice with raisins, almonds and orange), adas polo (rice, lentils and meat), morgh polo (chicken and pilau rice), chelo kababs (rice with skewered meats cooked over charcoal), kofte (minced meat formed into meatballs), kofte gusht (meatloaf), abgusht (thick stew), khoreshe badinjan (mutton and aubergine stew), mast-o-khier (cold yoghurt-based soup flavoured with mint, chopped cucumber and raisins) and dolmeh (stuffed aubergine, courgettes or peppers). 

Iranian’s favourite beverage is chai or tea, served hot, black and strong. Fresh fruit and vegetable juices, milk shakes and yoghurt drinks are also very popular. Mineral water is readily available throughout Iran. Alcohol consumption is strictly forbidden especially to Islamic Iranians. But it is permitted on special permissions to non-Muslims and for certain specific religious occasions like the wine communions in churches.

I should mention here that having meal in Iranian classic restaurants along with soft Iranian live music is really fantastic.   

I should mention here that having meal in Iranian classic restaurants along with soft Iranian live music is really fantastic.   


Interesting places to visit in Iran 

 
About 30 miles outside the northwestern of Tabriz lies the troglodyte village of Kandovan, where residents live in cone shaped caves cut out of volcanic rock. Nestled within the800 years old village, the Laleh Kandovan Rocky Hotel gives guests the experience of rock dwelling.
 

Bekhradi HistoricaL House, 400 years old. Isfahan, Iran.

Bekhradi HistoricaL House, 400 years old. Isfahan, Iran.

Perspolis, Takhte Jmashid, Shiraz, Iran(Impressive symbol of mighty Persian Empire in Achaemenid era )

The National Jewelry Treasury, Tehran. Iran

The National Jewelry Treasury, Tehran. Iran

Talare Ayene, Golestan Palace , Tehran. Iran.

Talare Ayene, Golestan Palace , Tehran. Iran.

Tomb of Hafez, Shiraz . Iran

Tomb of Hafez, Shiraz . Iran

  Milad Tower, Tehran . Iran.

 

Milad Tower, Tehran . Iran.

Shiraz. Iran

Shiraz. Iran

Imam Reza shrine, Mashhad, east of Iran.

Imam Reza shrine, Mashhad, east of Iran.

Dizin ski , Resort.(Shemshak and Dizin sky resort are 35 km from the capital Tehran. A very convenient getaway for winter activities.)

Dizin ski , Resort.(Shemshak and Dizin sky resort are 35 km from the capital Tehran. A very convenient getaway for winter activities.)

Kish Island, Persian Gulf, south of Iran.

Kish Island, Persian Gulf, south of Iran.

Kish Island, Persian Gulf, south of Iran.

Kish Island, Persian Gulf, south of Iran.

Kish Island, Persian Gulf, south of Iran.

Kish Island, Persian Gulf, south of Iran.

Ali Sadr cave, Hamedan, west of Iran.

Ali Sadr cave, Hamedan, west of Iran.

Ardabil.North West of Iran

Ardabil.North West of Iran

North of Iran

North of Iran

North of Iran

North of Iran

Asalem.Iran

Asalem.Iran

Rood Khan castle. Gilan. Iran

Rood Khan castle. Gilan. Iran

Chaloos Road. Jadeh Chaloos. North of Iran

Chaloos Road. Jadeh Chaloos. North of Iran

Badabe  Soort. Iran

Badabe  Soort. Iran


Some useful phrases

The Basics

yes
no
Where is?
How much?
Ticket
Thank you
Toilet
Excuse me

bale

na
.......koja st
che ghadr
belit
motashakkertam
tuvalet
bebakshid

Meeting People

Hello
Goodbye
My name is
What is your name?
Greetings
How are you?
Fine
Im from....

It is Gods will

salam
khoda hafez
esmam........... e
esmetun chi ye?
salam aleykom
haletun chetor e?
khubam
man ahl e ....... am

masallah

General Farsi Phrases

Where is ......?
Train station
Airport
Bus stop
TV
Id like a room
How much is it?
A week
Name
Visa
Passport
Today
Day
Year
Tomorrow

 ......koja st?
istgah e ghatur
furudgah
istgah e utubus
televizyon
ye otagh e mikham
baraye cheghadr?
ye hafte
esm
viza
gozarname
emruz
ruz
sal
farda

Emergencies in Farsi

Call the police!
Call an ambulance!
I want to contact the embassysefarat
doctor

polis o!
ye ambulans!
mikham ba sefarat
doktor

Iranian Food & Drink

I'm a vegetarian
apple
banana
banana shake
bread bun butter
chicken
coffee
fruit
meat
milk
orange
orange juice
potato
rice (uncooked)
rice (cooked)
salt
soup
sugar
tea
vegetables
water
yogurt
salt

man  sabzi  khar am
sib
moz
shir moz
kare cheese panir
morgh
qhaveh
mive
gusht
shir
porteghal
ab porteghal
sib zamini
berenj (ruz)
chelo
namak
sup
shekar
chay
sabzijat
ab
mast
namak

Numbers in Farsi

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
50
100
200
1000

yek
do
se
chahar
panj
shish
haft
hasht
nah
dah
panjah
sad
divist
hezar

Last but not Least; 
This page is not enough even to show just 1% of Iran, We invite you all to come, visit and enjoy all of Iran's Historical, natural, local and ect in Iran.